Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, GA. His birth certificate listed his first name as Michael but this was later changed to Martin. King graduated from Morehouse College in 1948 with a degree in Sociology. He further received a Bachelor’s of Divinity in 1951 and then a Ph.D. from Boston College in 1955. It was in Boston where he met and later married Coretta Scott. They had two sons and two daughters together.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was appointed the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama in 1954. It was while serving as pastor of the church that Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus to a white man. This occurred on December 1, 1955. By December 5, 1955, the Montgomery Bus Boycott had begun.
On December 5, 1955, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was unanimously elected president of the Montgomery Improvement Association which led the Montgomery Bus Boycott. During this time, African-Americans refused to ride the public bus system in Montgomery. King’s home was bombed due to his involvement. Thankfully his wife and baby daughter who were home at the time were unharmed. King was then arrested in February on the charges of conspiracy. The boycott lasted 382 days. In the end on December 21, 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation on public transportation was illegal.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was formed in 1957 and King was named its leader. Its goal was to provide leadership and organization in the fight for civil rights. He used the ideas of civil disobedience and peaceful protests based on the writings of Thoreau and the actions of Mohandas Gandhi to lead the organization and the fight against segregation and discrimination. Their demonstrations and activism helped lead to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a major part of many nonviolent protests as he helped lead the fight for desegregation and equal rights. He was arrested numerous times. In 1963, numerous “sit-ins” were staged in Birmingham, Alabama to protest segregation in restaurants and eating facilities. King was arrested during one of these and while he was imprisoned wrote his famous “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.” In this letter he argued that only through visible protests would progress be made. He argued that it was an individual’s duty to protest and in fact disobey unjusts laws. On August 28, 1963, the March on Washington led by King and other Civil Rights Leaders took place. It was the largest demonstration of its kind in Washington, D.C. up to that time and approximately 250,000 demonstrators were involved. It was during this March that King gave his awe-inspiring “I Have a Dream” speech while speaking from the Lincoln Memorial. He and the other leaders then met with President John F. Kennedy. They asked for many things including an end to segregation in public schools, greater protections for African-Americans, and more effective civil rights legislation amongst other things. In 1963, King was named Time Magazine’s Man of the Year. He had stepped onto the world stage. He met with Pope Paul VI in 1964 and then was honored as the youngest person ever to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. He was awarded this on December 10, 1964 at the age of thirty-five. He gave the entire amount of the prize money to help with the Civil Rights movement.